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Emergency ballots

This page explains emergency ballot procedures for each state.

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StateEmergency ballot rulesEmergency ballot request startEmergency ballot request endEmergency ballot return dateEmergency ballot applicationState Election Code
Alabama

Medical Emergency If you have a medical emergency within five days of Election Day, you may apply for an emergency absentee ballot. The ballot must be returned by NOON on Election Day and include a statement from a physician certifying and describing your condition.

Other Emergency You can apply for an emergency absentee ballot with your local election office until the day before Election Day if you:

  • are required to work under unforeseen circumstances within 5 days before Election Day and will be unavailable to vote at the polls on Election Day.
  • are a caregiver of a person who requires emergency treatment by a licensed physician within five days before Election Day.
  • have a family member to the second degree who dies within 5 days before Election Day.

You must include a form with an affidavit acknowledging that you were not aware of the situation constituting the emergency prior to 5 days before the election. After voting the emergency ballot, you must hand the ballot to the absentee election manager.

5 days before Election Day

1 day before Election Day

NOON on Election Day

Alabama Election Code

Section 17-11-3

Alaska

Alaska law has no reference to emergency ballots.

Arizona

If you are admitted to a hospital after 5PM on the second Friday preceding Election Day and before 5PM on Election Day, you may request the county recorder or other officer in charge of elections to provide a special election board with a ballot at your place of confinement. You will have to provide identification and sign a statement affirming that you have or are experiencing an emergency.

5PM two Fridays before Election Day

5PM on Election Day

Election Day

Arizona Election Code

Chapter 4, Article 8, 16-549

Arkansas

If you are hospitalized, you may designate a person to deliver an absentee application and obtain an absentee ballot from your local election office. Completed ballots must be returned to the county clerk office no later than 7:30PM on Election Day.

7 days before Election Day

Election Day

7:30PM Election Day

Arkansas Election Code

Title 7, Chapter 5, Subchapter 4, 7-5-403 & 7-5-411

California

All elections are held by mail. There is no reference to emergency ballots, but you can apply for a replacement ballot.

Emergency workers assigned outside of the state If you are an emergency worker assigned outside of the state, vote by mail materials can be sent via mail, fax, or email by the local election official.

Colorado

All Colorado elections are held by mail. If you are hospitalized or otherwise confined on Election Day, you may request in a personally signed written statement that the election official send a replacement ballot. If you are unable to have someone pick up and deliver the ballot to you, the election official may electronically deliver the ballot. The replacement ballot request must be made before 5PM Election Day and returned no later than 7PM Election Day.

after ballots have been issued

5PM Election Day

7PM Election Day

Connecticut

If you apply for an absentee ballot because of unforeseen illness, physical disability, or hospitalization occurring within 6 days before Election Day, you may appoint a designee to deliver the application and ballot. The application must include the date of illness or hospital address in the case of hospitalization.

6 days before Election Day

close of polls on Election Day

Election Day

Delaware

There is no emergency ballot provision, but you have until NOON the day before Election Day to submit a ballot request.

District of Columbia

District of Columbia law has no mention of emergency ballots.

Florida

9 days before and including Election Day, in an emergency, you may have a friend or family member pick up a vote by mail ballot for you. The ballot request and request to assign this person as your designee must be written and signed.

9 Days before Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

Florida Election Code

Chapter 101.62

Georgia

If you are hospitalized 10 days before or on Election Day, your ballot application will be immediately processed and a clerk may deliver the ballot to you.

10 Days before Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

Georgia Election Code

Title 21, Chapter 2, Article 10, 21-2-384

Hawaii

All elections are held by mail. If after 4:30PM 7 days before Election Day, you are unable to receive a ballot at your home address, an absentee ballot application may be processed in special or emergency cases.

4:30PM 7days before Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

Hawaii Election Code

Chapter 15-4

Idaho

If you are hospitalized within 5 days of Election Day, you may submit a ballot application until 5PM the Monday before Election Day.

5 days before Election Day

5PM the Monday before Election Day

Election Day

Idaho Election Code

Chapter 10, 34-1002A

Illinois

If you are hospitalized within 14 days of Election Day, you are eligible to have a ballot delivered to you by another registered voter or a relative.

14 days before Election Day

Election Day

7PM Election Day

Indiana

If you are hospitalized, injured, or there is a local disaster emergency in the 11 days before Election Day, you may apply for an absentee ballot. A board will determine your eligibilty and will send the ballot by mail or personally deliver the ballot to you. The completed ballot must be received by the absentee voter board no later than 6PM Election Day.

11 days before Election Day

Election Day

6PM Election Day

Indiana Election Code

Article 11, Chapter 4, Section 1

Iowa

If you are hospitalized within 3 days before Election Day, you may request an absentee ballot during that time or on Election Day. If you are hospitalized outside of the county where you are registered to vote, you may designate someone to deliver the ballot to you. The request must be completed no later than 4 hours before polls close on Election Day.

3 days before Election Day

4 hours before polls close on Election Day

close of polls on Election Day or postmarked one day before Election Day.

Iowa Election Code

Chapter 53.22

Kansas

If you have a temporary illness or disability, are not proficient in reading the English language, or assisting someone ill or not fluent in English, you may request an advance voting ballot until polls close on Election Day.

7 days before Election Day

NOON 1 day before Election Day

Election Day

Kansas Election Code

Chapter 25, Article 1122

Kentucky

If you are experiencing a medical emergency within 14 days Election Day, you may submit a notarized application for an absentee ballot. The application form may be requested and delivered by your spouse, parent or child. In cases where you do not have those relations, a brother, sister, niece, nephew or other designee may request and deliver the ballot on your behalf.

14 days before Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

Kentucky Election Code

Chapter 117.077

Louisiana

If you are eligible to vote absentee but do not have enough time to vote via mail, you may waive your right to a secret ballot and request electronic transmission of your ballot or have an immediate family member retrieve your voting materials from the registrar's office. You may return the ballot via mail, commercial carrier, or hand delivery. If your ballot was delivered electronically, you also have the option to fax your ballot. If the ballot is returned by hand delivery, the person delivering the ballot must sign a statement indicating that they have your consent to deliver the voted ballot.

3 days before Election Day

1 day before Election Day

4:30PM 1 day before Election Day

Maine

You may request an emergency ballot after the standard deadline (end of business on 3rd business day before Election Day) if one of the following apply:

  • You will be unexpectedly absent from the municipality during the entire time the polls are open on election day
  • You have a physical disability
  • You are unable to travel to the polls as a resident of a coastal island ward or precinct;
  • You have an incapacity or illness that has resulted in being unable to leave home or a treatment facility

close of business 3 days before Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

Maine Election Code

Title 21-A, Chapter 9, Subchapter 4, Article 1, 753-B

Maryland

You may submit a ballot request online through the Friday before Election Day. You may authorize a person to submit a ballot request on your behalf at the local election board office until polls close on Election Day.

Friday before Election Day

close of polls Election Day

Election Day

Maryland Election Code

Title 9, Subtitle 3, 9-305

Massachusetts

You or a family member working on your behalf may request an absentee ballot if you are hospitalized after NOON 7 days before Election Day.

NOON 7 days before Election Day

close of polls Election Day

Election Day

Massachusetts Election Code

Chapter 54, Section 89

Michigan

You may request an emergency absentee ballot if you become physically disabled or will be absent from your city of residence due to illness or death in the family.

5PM Friday before Election Day

4PM Election Day

received at the clerk's office by Election Day

Michigan Election Code

Chapter XXVIII, Section 168.759b

Minnesota

If you are hospitalized the day before Election Day, you may request an application via telephone no later than 5PM the day before Election Day. You may also submit an absentee application to election judges delivering absentee ballots to hospitalized voters.

1 day before Election Day

5PM 1 day before Election Day

Election Day

Minnesota Election Code

Chapter 203B, Section 203B.04

Mississippi

Mississippi law has no reference to emergency ballots.

Missouri

Missouri law does not mention emergency ballots. There are no exceptions to the standard absentee ballot deadline.

Montana

If you have an illness or health emergency occurin between 5PM the Friday before Election Day and the close of polls on Election Day, you may request an emergency absentee ballot. The completed ballot must be received by 8PM on Election Day.

5 PM Friday before Election Day

close of polls Election Day

8PM Election Day

Montana Election Code

Title 13, Chapter 13, Part 2, 13-13-211

Nebraska

If you are an emergency responder providing services outside of your county of residence at any point during the 45 days before or including Election Day, you may request a ballot via fax or email.

45 days before Election Day

NOON Election Day

Election Day

Nevada

All elections are held by mail and there is no mention of emergency ballots. Nevada provides an accessible ballot portal for voters with disabilities.

New Hampshire

Emergency workers If after NOON on the Friday before Election Day, you are an emergency service worker called to duty the secretary of state's office with assistance from the attourney general and department of safety will make reasonable efforts to ensure that you have any necessary absentee forms, affadavits and any other material needed to cast your vote.

NOON Friday before Election Day

Monday before Election Day

Election Day

New Hampshire Election Code

Chapter 657, Section 657:21-a

New Jersey

New Jersey does not have a specific emergency ballot procedure, but you may apply in person for a mail ballot until 3PM 1 day before Election Day.

New Mexico

If you become ill, disabled, hospitalized or otherwise confined after the mail ballot request deadline (5 days before Election Day), you may request a provisional ballot. The written request must include your signature and the signature of your health care provider. You may designate a representative to retrieve the ballot from the county clerk. The completed provisional ballot must be returned by the close of polls on Election Day

close of business 5 days before Election Day

Election Day

close of polls Election Day

New Mexico Election Code

Chapter 1, Article 6, 1-6-16.2

New York

There is no emergency ballot procedure for most voters.

Ballots for Emergency Responders If you are an emergency responder and will be away performing duties on Election Day, you may request a ballot after the standard absentee deadline (15 days before Election Day). This special ballot will be issued immediately using overnight express delivery unless there is a designated preference for facsimile or electronic transmission. Your voted ballot must be returned to any board of elections office or polling location within the state by the close of polls on Election Day.

14 days before Election Day

Election Day

close of polls Election Day

New York Election Code

Chapter 17, Article 8, Section 8-400

North Carolina

If after 5PM on the Tuesday before Election Day you are ill or physically disabled and unable to vote in person on Election Day, you, your close relative, or your guardian may request an absentee ballot on your behalf. The request must be submitted before 5PM 1 day before Election Day.

5PM Tuesday before Election Day

5PM 1 day before Election Day

5PM Election Day

North Carolina Election Code

Chapter 163, Article 20, 163-230.1

North Dakota

If you have an emergency on Election Day, you may designate someone to request a ballot on your behalf. The completed ballot must be returned by 4PM Election Day to be counted.

Election Day

4PM Election Day

4PM Election Day

North Dakota Election Code

Title 16.1, Chapter 7, Section 16.1-07-05

Ohio

If you or your minor child are hospitalized as a result of an accident or unforseeable medical emergency occurring before Election Day, you may apply for an absentee ballot. The application must be in writing and delivered to the board of elections no later than 3PM Election Day. The application must include the name of the hospital, the hospitalization date, and the offices you are qualified to vote for. You may have a family member retrieve the ballot for you, otherwise the board will arrange for a ballot to be delivered to the hospital for you.

close of business 3 days before Election Day

3PM Election Day

Election Day

Ohio Election Code

Title 35, Chapter 3509, Section 3509.08

Oklahoma

If after 5PM on the Tuesday before Election Day you or someone in your care are physically incapacitated, you may apply for an absentee ballot or designate someone to apply for you. The request must be signed and include a sworn statement by a physician.

5PM Tuesday before Election Day

Election Day

7PM Election Day

Oklahoma Election Code

Title 26, 26-14-110.1 & 26-14-115.1

Oregon

All elections are held by mail. Oregon law has no reference to emergency ballots.

Pennsylvania

In emergency situations, such as an unexpected illness, disability or last-minute absence from your municipality, you can request an Emergency Absentee Ballot after 5 pm on the Tuesday before the election. The deadline to submit your Emergency Absentee Ballot Application to the County Election Board is 8 pm on Election Day.

5PM Tuesday before Election Day

8PM on Election Day

Election Day

Rhode Island

You may apply for an emergency absentee ballot 20 days before through 4PM 1 day before Election Day.

20 days before Election Day

4PM 1 day before Election Day

Election Day

Rhode Island Election Code

Title 17, Chapter 20, Section 17-20-2.2

South Carolina

If you are admitted to a hospital within the 4 days before Election Day, you may designate a family member obtain an a ballot, bring it to you to vote, and then return your voted ballot.

Election Day

Election Day

Election Day

South Carolina Election Code

Title 7, Chapter15, Section 17-15-330

South Dakota

If you are confined due to sickness or disability, you may receive a ballot by messenger. The deadline to submit your request is 3PM Election Day.

anytime before Election Day

3PM Election Day

Election Day

South Dakota Election Code

Title 12, Chapter 19, 12-19-2.1

Tennessee

You may apply for an emergency absentee ballot 20 days before through the opening of polls on Election Day if you are hospitalized. Your ballot must be witness by another registered voter.

You may be eligible to vote absentee by personal appearance at the commision office if within 5 days to 1 day before Election Day:

  • there is a death of your relative which will result in your absence from the state or county on Election Day
  • you receive a subpoena or service of processing that requires your presence on Election Day

20 days before Election Day

before polls open on Election Day

Election Day

Tennessee Election Code

Title 2, Chapter 6, Part 4, 2-6-401

Texas

Illness or disability If on or after 11 days before Election Day you have a sickness or physical condition that prevents you from voting in person, you may submit a request for a late ballot. Your request must be accompanied by a statement from your medical practioner.

Death of a relative If a family member within the second degree dies 4 days before Election Day or later, and you will be absent from your county of residence, you may request a late ballot. You will have to include a statement with the date of death and your relationship to the deceased person. The application must be submitted before the close of business 1 day before Election Day

11 days before Election Day

for illness or disability, 5PM Election Day,

for a relative's death, close of business 1 day before Election Day

Election Day

Texas Election Code

Title 7, Chapter 102, Section 102.001 & Chapter 103, Section 103.001

Utah

If you are hospitalized you may obtain a ballot to use as an emergency ballot and vote at any time after the election officer mails ballots to the majority of voters and before the close of polls on election day. Any individual may obtain an emergency ballot application, a ballot, and a ballot envelope from the election officer on your behalf by requesting a ballot and application in person at the election officer's office during business hours.

after the majority of ballots have been issued. Ballots must be issued 21-7 days before the election

close of polls Election Day

close of polls Election Day if hand delivered to a polling location or drop box & postmarked before Election Day if mailed.

Utah Election Code

Title 20A, Chapter 3a, Part 3, 20A-3a-301

Vermont

All elections are conducted by mail. In cases of emergency illness or injury and at the discretion of the town clerk, a ballot request may be accepted after the deadline (5PM 1 day before Election Day). The request can be made by a family member or healthcare provider acting on your behalf. A ballot may be mailed, electronically delivered, or delivered by two justices of the peace.

5PM 1 day before Election Day

Election Day

7PM Election Day at your polling location or it must be received before the office closes 1 day before Election Day.

Vermont Election Code

Title 17, Chapter 051, Subchapter 006, 2531

Virginia

Medical Emergency If you were unable to apply for an absentee ballot by the deadline or are unable to vote on Election Day due to hospitalization or illness, or the hospitalization, illness, or death of a spouse, child, or parent, or other emergency you may request an emergency absentee ballot.

Emergency Absentee Voting Due to Unexpected Obligation You must vote in person by 2PM one day before Election Day. You may cast an emergency absentee ballot if you are either an officer of election who was assigned after NOON on the Saturday before the election to work in a precinct other than your own; or had an obligation arise after NOON on the Saturday before the election due either to:

  • your business, profession, or occupation
  • your hospitalization
  • the hospitalization or death of an immediate family member

close of business 11 days before Election Day

2PM one day before Election Day completed application must be returned by 5PM

Election Day

Virginia Election Code

Title 24.2, Chapter 7, 24.2-705

Washington

All elections are conducted by mail. There is no specific emergency ballot provision, but a replacement ballot can be requested by phone, mail, in person or electronically. Replacement ballots can be requested and printed through VoteWA.gov.

Washington Election Code

Title 29A, Chapter 29A.40, Section 29A.40.070

West Virginia

If you become ill or otherwise confined within the 7 days before Election Day, you are able to apply for an emergency ballot. This includes:

  • Hospitalization within a neighboring county, or within 35 miles of the county seat.
  • Residency in a nursing home within the county.
  • Confinement, during 7 days preceding an election, to a specific location within the county because of illness, injury, physical disability, immobility due to advanced age, or another medical reason.

The ballot will be delivered by two absentee ballot commissioners from different political parties.

7 days before Election Day

NOON Election Day

Election Day

West Virginia Election Code

Chapter 3, Article 3, 3-3-5c

Wisconsin

If you are hospitalized, you may apply for an absentee ballot or have someone apply on your behalf. If you meet the registration requirement, but are not currently registered to vote, you may complete a voter registration form at the same time as you apply for a ballot.

7 days before Election Day

5PM Election Day

close of polls Election Day at your polling location or 8PM to the municipal clerk in some jurisdictions. Ballots may be returned by mail or in person.

Wisconsin Election Code

Chapter 6, Subchapter IV, 6.86

Wyoming

Wyoming law does not mention emergency ballots, however:

  • a ballot may be obtained on behalf of a voter by an individual the voter designates.
  • a ballot may be applied for any time within the calendar year at least one day before Election Day.

Wyoming Election Code

Title 22, Chapter 9, 22-9-104